عنوان مقاله [English]
This article attempts to prove that the rhetorical principles in muslim world should be compiled according to sources other than official rhetorical textbooks. One of these sources is Andarznama, which contains the main rhetotical principles of oral situations. In this article, we attempt to compile the speech-based rhetorical principles through comparing two treatises: Ptah-hutep maxims, as the first extant rhetorical treatise, and Qabusnama as the first Persian Andarznama which contains separate chapters on rhetoric and oratory. These principles are: 1- keeping silent 2- speaking in appropriate time 3- not overusing emotional words 4- speaking fluently and reflectively 5-always speaking the truth. Examining these principles shows not only the fundamental differences between text-based and speech-based rhetoric, but also proves the independence of Persian rhetoric from the greco-roman rhetorical tradition.