عنوان مقاله [English]
Having a divine nature, epic heroes are nurtured as an ideal pattern for the society that meets a variety of unattainable needs and desires of human beings. In addition to physical strength and natural forces, they take benefits from mythical and supernatural powers to overcome obstacles and problems in life. Establishing a relationship with dead spirits is among these supernatural forces. The current study is based on a descriptive-analytical research method. The findings can be divided into two categories: first, how epic heroes relate to the spirits of the dead, including the hero's journey to the world of the dead, talking to the spirits of the ancestors within a dream, the manifestation of the spirits and observing them in the material world; and second, how the spirits of the dead and the heroes are affected each other so that the spirits of the dead predict the future or open their mouths about advice and compliance. The spirits sometimes remind the instability of the world, and sometimes try to reveal a secret. In contrast, the hero informs them about their family and relatives or performs morning rituals at the request of the spirits for their comfort. Thus, such an attitude toward epic works can be useful in understanding intellectual and social contexts of past nations and peoples.