عنوان مقاله [English]
Various editions of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh have been attempted over the past two hundred years to bring the epic closer to what Ferdowsi originally penned. Despite these efforts, the valuable verses, numerous appended couplets, and various other flaws persist in this epic masterpiece. The absence of ancient manuscripts emphasizes the need to consider alternative methods in correcting Shahnameh. One such approach is self-correction, considering elements such as similes, metaphors, interpretations, and their equivalents. This method can rectify many discrepancies. In this article, the second hemistich of the couplet “kherad chon shaved kehtar-e kam o rashk /Chonan dan ke divane khanad pezeshk (When wisdom becomes less than desire and envy, know it like a physician who considers someone insane)” is corrected and analyzed based on the proverb “Hasad [rashk] dardist bi-darman (Envy is an incurable pain)” and the recurrence of this proverb in other verses of Shahnameh and Persian literary texts, presented as “Chonan dan ke daroo na-danad pezeshk (Know that, like a physician who does not know the remedy)”.
Keywords: Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, proverb, correction, envy, remedy.
Ferdowsi's Shahnameh is a treasury of profound words and wisdom, with many of its verses taking the form of proverbs. Evidence of this can be found in various books such as "Amthal va Hekam" by Dehkhoda. Furthermore, Ferdowsi employed numerous ancient and time-honored proverbs in different ways within Shahnameh, ensuring that this splendid treasury rescued many forgotten and neglected ancient proverbs. These proverbs later became the foundation for valuable artistic themes in the history of Persian literature. In this article, a verse from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh is corrected and explained based on the proverb “Hasad dardist bi-darman (Envy is an incurable pain)” and the discovery of this proverb in other verses of Shahnameh and Persian literary texts.
Materials and Methods
From this existing treasury of proverbs in texts, it is possible to correct possible discrepancies and corruptions in some verses with a solid and reasoned basis through analogy. At times, these proverbs have been overlooked by editors and commentators of Shahnameh, and if corruptions have occurred in these verses, editors have often been ineffective in utilizing the existing proverb as a basis for correcting the verse. It is important to note that one method of correcting Shahnameh verses is to use parallel verses within Shahnameh itself. Often, themes, combinations, and similar proverbs and metaphors are repeated in different verses, allowing potential discrepancies in these verses to be reconciled through comparison and analysis.
In the story of the great war between Kay Khosrow and Afrasiab, after Garsivaz is captured and imprisoned in the Ghang Castle, Ferdowsi, in the course of narrating this story, imparts his ethical advice and guidance to the reader in the following manner:
“kherad chon shaved kehtar-e kam o rashk/ Chonan dan ke divane khanad pezeshk”
(When wisdom becomes less than desire and envy, know it like a physician who considers someone insane) (Ferdowsi, 1386: Vol. 4, p. 286)
According to the writer, there is serious doubt in the logical sense of the second hemistich because this theme is not repeated elsewhere in Shahnameh. "The physician will consider insane someone who becomes less than desire and enviable!" Why should a physician consider or label such a person as insane? It should be noted that in ancient times, even remedies were prescribed for the insane. Also, “kehtar-e kam o rashk (becomes less than desire and envy)” does not equate to madness. In this context, two suggestions for correcting the mentioned couplet are presented, and reasons for choosing one of these suggestions are subsequently provided.
“kherad chon shaved kehtar-e kam o rashk/ Chonan dan ke daroo na-danad pezeshk”
(When wisdom becomes less than desire and envy, know that, like a physician who does not know the remedy)
Based on Moskow's correction of the second hemistich, it can be said that "ne" in “divane (insane)” is a negative prefix to the verb, which probably should attach to “khanad/danad (know)” and transform it into "na-khand/ na-danad (not know)." In this case, only "diva" remains from “divane (insane),” and it is synonymous with the term "daroo" (remedy). Not knowing the remedy by the physician and abstaining from treating some diseases is observable in other verses of Shahnameh as well.
"Hami rikht az dide khunin sareshak/ ze derdi ke darman na-danad pezeshk." (Ferdowsi, 1382: Vol. 1, p. 768)
This verse is very similar to the discussed couplet in this article, serving as confirmation for the proposed correction by the writer. In this verse as well, the physician does not know the remedy for the pain caused by envy:
“Sereshak andar ayad be mojgan ze rashk/ Sereshaki ke darman na-danad pezeshk.”
(Tears come forth to the eyelashes from envy, tears that the physician cannot cure) (Ferdowsi, 1382: Vol. 1, p. 438)
As mentioned earlier, one of the reasons that strengthens the proposed correction of the couplet is the presence of a proverb in all these verses. In these Shahnameh verses, the proverb "The physician does not know the remedy for the envy" is used, which is an older version of the proverb "Envy is an incurable pain" (Dehkhoda, 1382: Vol. 2, p. 695).
Based on the evidence provided in this article, it is clear that the oldest manuscripts of Shahnameh are more than two centuries apart from the completion of its composition, making it impossible to rely solely on the surviving versions for correction. One of the strong and scientific foundations for correcting Shahnameh is to correct Shahnameh based on Shahnameh itself. Considering the repetition of many words, combinations, themes, and similar elements in various verses of Shahnameh, this method proves effective. In light of this characteristic and, furthermore, keeping in mind the proverb “Hasad [rashk] dardist bi-darman (Envy is an incurable pain)” in the present article, it becomes evident that the correct form of the second hemistich of the couplet “kherad chon shaved kehtar-e kam o rashk/ Chonan dan ke divane khanad pezeshk (When wisdom becomes less than than desire and envy, know it like a physician who considers someone insane)” is likely “Chonan dan ke daroo na-danad pezeshk (Know that, like a physician who does not know the remedy).” To strengthen and confirm this suggestion, evidence from Shahnameh and some ancient texts where the mentioned proverb is used has been provided.