عنوان مقاله [English]
Mosarrahat ul-asmā’ is a bi-lingual dictionary‚ Arabic to Persian‚ written by Lotfullah ebn abi Yousef Halimi‚ ottoman lexicographer and philologist of the ninth and beginning of the tenth century AH (15 century AD). This book written in 872 AH (14۶۶ AD) ‚ has nearly 17112 headwords, considering some of their Turkish equivalents (nearly 1180 headwords), we can somehow call it a tri-lingual Arabic to Persian and Turkish dictionary. Considering to emersion of this kind of dictionaries in the ninth-century‚ we can enumerate Mosarrahat ul-asmā’ as a pioneer in this field.In addition to carrying a variety of definition language, we can mention other features of this book including: presenting a comprehensive and complete definition of some headwords which is distincting from similar dictionaries, recording Arabization (to indicate pronunciation) of some of the Persian and sometimes Turkish equivalents that display outdated pronunciation of words, their local dialect or Turkish dialect, Using some rare and alternative pronunciation of words that represent their phonetic changes, Using rare and compound words, recording specialized medical words.
Keywords: Old lexicography‚ Mosarrahat ul-asmā’‚ Lotfullah Halimi‚ linguistic features‚ rare words.
Mosarrahat ul-Asmā’ is a bi-lingual Arabic to-Persian dictionary‚ written by Lotfullah ebn abi Yousef Halimi‚ ottoman lexicographer and philologist of the ninth and beginning of the tenth century AH (15 century AD). This book written in 872 AH (1466 AD) ‚ has nearly 17112 headwords, considering some of their Turkish equivalents (nearly 700 headwords), we can somehow call it a tri-lingual Arabic to Persian and Turkish dictionary. Considering this kind of dictionary emersion in the ninth-century‚ we can enumerate Mosarrahat ul-Asmā’ as a pioneer in this field.
This book is the result of the authorship of the lexicographer who has written several dictionaries; including Bahr ul-gharā’eb, Loghat-e Halimi, Nesār ul-Malek, and Tohfat ul-Maghaddamat ul-loghat. Undoubtedly his long life, learning various sciences and being in important employment has had a great influence on the expansion of his lexical range, therefore this book is a precious treasure of Persian and Turkish words and combinations, valuable information about their meanings, phonetic, lexical developments and represents the skill of the author in the art of lexicography.
This dictionary‚ has nearly 17112 headwords arranged in alphabetical order based on the first and second letters. Considering the type of grammatical words in the Arabic language (Noun, Verb, and Preposition), these headwords are «Nouns». Headwords and their meanings are arranged in this book in the lexicography of the Ottoman land, such that Arabic headwords are written one after another and their meanings are arranged just right below it like a cross. The author has collected these headwords from books including Moghaddamat ul-Adab by Jār ul-llāh-e Zamakhshari and Assāmi fel Asāmi by Abulfath-e Meydāni and he added explanations to them obtained from the books including Assehāh by Jowhari, Jamharat ul-loghat by Ebn-e Dorayd, Mojmal ul-loghat by Ebn-e Fāres, Almerghāt by Adib-e Natanzi, Ghānun-e Adab by Abulfazl-e Habishi, etc.
The oldest accessible source which has mentioned Mosarrahat ul-Asmā’ is Anis ul-Fogha-hā by Ghasem ebn-e Abdollāh-e Ghownavi (dead 987 AH). He has introduced Mosarrahat ul-Asmā’ in his work beside famous dictionaries like Al’eyn by Khalil ebn-e Ahmad, Assehāh by Jowhari, Asās ul-Balāghe by Zamakhshari, Almasāder by AbuBakr-e Tanusi, etc, in the introduction chapter of the «Kotob ul-loqat».
This dictionary has unique stylistic and lexical features that after correcting and editing, as an old prose text and a reference book can be a suitable context for literary research and lexical references in various areas. The most important features of this book are:
«Features of lexicography»: Presenting the new methods of lexicography by comprehensive definitions in a way that the dictionary user grasps the proof of the meaning; Presenting various lexical information in every headword; Indicating short vowel sounds of the words; Using several types of plural and simple words; Recording synonyms of the word, etc.; Using the rare meanings of the words; Using the brevity in the term for abstaining from wordiness by shortening the sentence by making descriptive compounds.
« Lexical and phonetic features»: Recording the rare and compound words that have been used rarely in the texts; Recording the words with their old pronunciation that today are not pronounced like that anymore except in a few special Persian-speaking areas and both its old and modern pronunciations have been recorded in available dictionaries; Recording the words which their pronunciation is not available in any dictionary and there is a possibility that it is a dialect from certain regions or a Turkish accent if the scribe did not record it incorrectly; Recording the pronunciation of Turkish words, which represents the old pronunciation of Ottoman Turkish in the 9th century; Recording the Specialized words: Lotfullāh-e Halimi had skills in judgment, Islamic jurisprudence, medicine, poetry, prosody and rhyme, calligraphy, astronomy, etc. Therefore, this book is a valuable repository of specialized words in the aforementioned fields, especially medicine.
«Grammatical features»: Making new and rare compounds (composite words); Using nouns with their unnormal qualifying adjectives; Using the noun and its qualifying adjective inversely (following the Turkish language); Using the noun and its qualifying adjective like Arabic grammar.
Result: Mosarrahat ul-Asmā’ dictionary has unique stylistic and lexical features that highlight the necessity of correcting and printing this book. Fortunately, this book is under correction and final editing.