عنوان مقاله [English]
The two-part world of light and darkness has a long history. In the imagination of ancient Iranians, there are two principles in eternity; One was called Ahura Mazda and the other Ahriman. The research question is, what is the foundation of light and darkness in Khosravani's wisdom? And how are these two concepts explained in Bayezid's sayings and Hanry Corben's metaphysics? The purpose of this research is to explain the nature of light and darkness in Bayezid's mysticism and its connection with Khosravani's wisdom and to reflect this category with Hanry Corben's worlds in the ancient Iran. The findings of the research are that the dualities of light and darkness are two separate essences with different natures, which were correct in the wisdom of Khosravani and the mysticism of Bayazid Bastami. HanryCorben connects the metaphysics of Suhrawardi's thought with German romanticism, Mazdaism, Manichaeism, Hermesis, and the Sufism of Rozbehan Baghli, NajmuddinKobra, and NajmuddinRazi. Mazdasna's worldview is based on light and darkness. Light is the appearance of the self and the appearance of others. Darkness is also the essence of dark and has a dark aspect. The hero of mystical thought is a light man trapped in darkness who is thinking of liberation. His idea and experience are also connected in the connection of light man and his guide. Bayezid also meant God's light and the achievement of it in his mystical thinking.
Keywords: light and darkness, Hekmat Khosravani, Hanry Carben, Irfan, Bayazid Bastami..
The light of good and the darkness of evil is a myth that has been with mankind. It is one of the most important topics in the wisdom of Iranian Khosravani and the works of Henry Carben. The main theme is a kind of cosmology in which the existential truth of things is explained in a continuous law of self-conscious and independent essence, which is the basis of existence. And it is called Noor, and the top of its pyramid is Noor al-Anwar. One of the goals of Iranian Sufi literature is to find the Noor region of the East in the celestial pole. The space of light that cannot be achieved by human means and is ultimately the outermost dimension and interior of light, which is achieved only as a result of mystical discovery and intuition. In fact, it is a transcendental dimension that forms the totality of the way of knowledge. It has two aspects; One is the darkness that is thinking about the captivity of light, and the other is reaching for the light that passes through the darkness, and from the point of view of the human soul, it is the appearance of superconsciousness on the horizon of consciousness, which appears in different contexts in the mysticism of later periods, but in any case It is related to metaphysics or the mystical experience of light. Orientation towards the light of the east(which people like Sohrvardi thought of reviving the wisdom that the sages of ancient Iran have been the representatives and guardians of this wisdom above all) It is an essential nature and a general power that when the lover is at the peak of love, a unity It forms a double that is both a lover and a beloved. Light is an appearance by nature, so it is the agent itself, and nothing exists for it, it has no gender, no limit, and no manifester. There is an ancient and extensive connection between light and divine presence, and it is found in many ancient rituals of the world. According to Henry Carbon, the philosophy of illumination is the philosophy of presence. Light is the source of secrets and mysteries of Bayezid's mysticism, which is neither comparable nor measurable with the sense light, and in Bayezid's condition, it was accompanied by his ascension. Existence is light and absence is darkness and darkness is the veil of selfishness. The luminosity of the world is due to the presence of light, and its darkness is the result of the lack of light. God is absolute light and calls people to him in the spectrum of light. A kind of epistemology of ancient Iranian beliefs with the use of two heterogeneous and irreducible principles of light and darkness to explain truth and reality with metaphysical aspects, they are constantly in conflict with each other and until consciousness cannot distinguish between day and night and the divine and Even if its devilishness is distinguished, this diagnosis remains vague and until its conditions prevail, the sun, which is the initiating light, cannot show itself. The soul lives in the light of day, only because the night is in itself. Perhaps the divine night is the superconsciousness that illuminates the field of light of consciousness, and it may be the light of consciousness that overcomes the darkness of the unconscious. In both cases, the burst of light weaves ready responses. The spiritual world of Iran, before and after Islam, becomes the most important. This figure in frequent expressions (Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Hermeticism and Sufism) refers to one direction, which is the northern light and the threshold of the beyond. The mystical east, the origin of the east, is the celestial pole, which is the point of orientation towards spiritual ascension, and its attraction like a magnet draws beings who are settled in their eternal awe towards the flaming horizons of immaterial matter and the land of light. pulled For the seeker, the physiology of light and its attainment are associated with brighter colored photicisms, each of which has great significance and is an integral part of a mystical experience. Hikmat Suhrawardi is a new organized form of Hermeticism, Zoroastrianism, Neoplatonism and Islamic Sufism, which has a more coherent form. The ancient sage believed that for each individual soul, a being in the spiritual world (perfect nature or a religious angel) with a direct relationship between the divine world and this spiritual individuality takes care of these souls throughout their existence. In Bayazid's imagination, the light of Muhammad (PBUH) is the source of creation.