عنوان مقاله [English]
For the first time, Wikander, with his research on Mahabharat and the Shahname, suggested that the warrior class among the Aryan people was an independent class of social structure, and that the clergy and the peasants constituted two other classes. By placing the group of rulers next to the clergy in the first class and examining the social structure of other Indo-European peoples, Dumézil extended the theory of the threple systhem social structure to other societies of this nation. He believed that in addition to the social structure, gods, families, and even more detailed concepts such as medicine, fire, and Farrah in Iran followed this structure. But by examining these issues in more detail in Shahname and Mahabharat, we can say that many of Dumézil's analyzes can be criticized. In this article, an attempt has been made to critically examine the foundations of Dumézil's theory based on the myths and epics of India and Iran, and to critique and analyze this theory. According to studies, it seems that social classes and other concepts that Dumézil emphasizes are not very separable and demarcating. On the other hand, the peasantry in Indo-Iranian beliefs was not as important as other classes and Contrary to Dumézil's view, craftsmanship has a long history in these societies.
Keywords: Dumézil; Social Structure; Indo-Iranian; Shahname; Mahabharat.
In the Book " Der arische Männerbund ", for the first time, Stig Wikander proposed the theory that one of the influential groups of Indo-Iranian peoples were warriors who acted under the management of a leader and were separated from two groups of clerics and farmers. By investigating the Indian gods and reflecting their role in the character of Pandu's five children in Mahabharata, then, he concluded that the triple pattern is also reflected in the gods function. Following him, Dumézil divides the Indo-European society into three parts: clergymen, kings or Brahmins, soldiers, and cultivators, and considers the action of the first group as magic and command, the action of the second class as physical strength and warfare, and that of the third class as fertility and related concepts such as beauty, youth, and lust. In addition, the gods of this clan are divided into three categories with the same functions in Dumézil theory. In this paper, we are trying to re-investigate the Dumézil theory by investigating the social structure in Shahnameh and Mahabharat - as two fundamental texts in Wikander and Dumézil theory - as well as the foundations of Dumézil and Wikander's theory, including Farrah and medicine.
Discussion and review
2-1. Classes (categories) in Shahnameh and Mahabharat: Social classes in Shahnameh are divided into four groups: clergymen, army men, cultivators, and artisans, and the class of rulers is not mentioned. Dumézil includes the ruling class in the first class alongside the clergy; but this is indeed not true and most of the rulers are linked with warrior class in Iran. There are four classes of Brahmin, warrior-ruler, traders, and servants in the Mahabharata. The function of kingdom in Iran, like in India, is linked with the warrior class, and the national kings and local rulers of Iran, such as the clan of Rostam and Kashvad, have a warrior function.
2-2.)- Pandu's children and triple functions: Dumézil believed that two Pandus' father (since he was a prominent ruler) and elder brother represented the clergy-ruler class; two middle brothers are the manifestation of militancy and the last twins are the manifestation of fertility. However, the two Pandus' father is a yellow and sickly person, he does not have a long-lasting rule and dies before his children reach maturity. Also, the function of all the brothers in Mahabharat is the same as that of the warrior-commander class.
2-3. Shahnameh dynasties and triple functions: Following Dumézil, Vikander also believed that among the Iranian kings, the Lohrasb Dynasty was associated with fertility, Kiyans with warrior class, and with clergy class before the Kiyans. However, during the rule of the Lohrasab Dynasty, there were important events that put this family in conflict with the concept of fertility; such as the killing of two princes (Zarir and Esfandyar) and kidnapping of the king's daughters. On the other hand, Lohrasb was one of the commanders of Keykhosro's army, which shows that he is related to the military function.
4. Three Farrahs and triple functions: Dumézil believes that the three Farrahs separated from Jamshid and reached Mitra, Garshasb, and Fereydon are signs of three functions of clergy-kingdom in Mitra's Farrah, warfare in Garshasb Farrah and agriculture in Fereydon Farrah. However, in authentic Iranian texts, there is no independent Farrah with fertility function. There are two Farrahs in yachts: Iranian Farrah and Kiani Farrah. Based on the texts analysis, it should be mentioed that the three Iranian Farrahs are clergy, kingdom, and champion ones.
2-5. Division of the world between three children: Dumézil considers the story of the government division between the three children to be related to the three-part system and believes that in Yiati government division story among three grandchildren, Vesumneh is related to the third class due to giving charity, Perterdne to the second class due to fighting and Shabi to the first class because of sacrificing. However, it is explicitly mentioned in the Mahabharata that all the three functions are the duties of the Kshatriya class. Dumézil believes this about Iraj, Salam, and Turan as well; but he does not provide any analysis or indications.
2-6. Gods and triple classes: Dumézil mentions Mitra-Verone couple as kingdom gods; but Mitra-Verone have a very widespread connection with water, fertility, and fecundity both as a couple and as separate gods. This couple is responsible for the watery springs, rain, abundance of blessings, health, wealth and plenty of sustenance (aliment). The most important function of Verone is related to water, fertility, and creation. Indra is also one of the rain-bringing gods. Dumézil in Iran also associates Kshatra Vairya with function of warfare and separates it from the function of kingdom while Kshatra Vairya means desirable kingdom.
2-7. Medicine and role of professionals: Dumézil considers medicine to be related to the three classes because of its three forms, i.e. treatment by prayer, treatment by surgery, and treatment by medicinal plants while after Eliade's research, it has been determined that in the ancient world, all the three forms of medicine were under the shoulder of the clergy of the communities. Furthermore, Dumézil did not mention the class of artisans; while the Indo-Iranian people, as a semi-nomad and warrior people, had many relationships with artisanry, especially blacksmithing before agriculture and fertility.
The triple structure that Dumézil presents of Indo-European societies is based on Indo-Iranian myths and epics; but this structure in Shahnameh and Mahabharat does not match what he describes. In Mahabharat, the rulership is completely on the shoulder of the warrior class, and the clergy have a separate class; There is also no indication of the agricultural class. The ruling class is completely connected with the warrior clans in Shahnameh. In addition, the function of gods is not limited to what Dumézil mentions, and their function cannot be categorized in certain classes. On the other hand, it should be noted that the importance of artisanry in Indo-European people is more than that of the fertility concept; since these people were not farmers at that time. According to these prerequisites, it should be said that the triple divisions of Dumézil are not exact, and at least it should be said that the class of rulers is alongside the warriors and separate from clerics. The fertility class does not seem genuine.